Titanium alloy strength-to-weight ratios are superior to all other metals and become important in such diverse applications as lightweight structural members, deepwell tubestrings in the petroleum industry and surgical implants in the medical field.
Aerospace Alloys or 'super-alloys' are highly-engineered materials designed for extreme temperature gradients. Nozzles, heat treating fixtures, furnace muffles and rated piping are just several examples. These materials must stand up to high heat, extreme oxidation potential and high cyclic frequencies.
Exotic Materials There are many other materials (metal and nonmetal) such as graphite, silicon and ceramic composites that may also be machined.
Titanium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 25,000 psi (172 MPa) commercially pure (CP) Grade 1 to above 200,000 psi (1380 MPa) for heat treated beta alloys. Ti's lower density (56% of steel) means smaller, lighter components.
Titanium is immune to corrosive attack by salt water or marine atmospheres. It has very high resistance to acids, alkalis, natural waters and industrial chemicals. Titanium offers superior resistance to erosion and cavitation-least twenty times better than copper-nickel alloys. Used frequently for aerospace applications, Titanium is also appropriate for some rotating or reciprocating applications such as centrifuges and pumps.
High temperature strength and oxidation resistance to 2200°F. Excellent forming and welding characteristics. Resistance to oxidizing, reducing, and neutral atmospheres. Good ductility after prolonged service temperatures of 1200, through 1600°F for 16,000 hours.
APPLICATIONS: Combustion cans and ducting, heat-treating equipment, spray bars, flame holders, furnace rolls, furnace baffles, and flash drier components.
Excellent strength from -423°F to 1300°F (-253°C to 705°C). Age hardenable. Excellent oxidation resistance up to 1800°F (980°C).
APPLICATIONS: Pump bodies and parts, motors, fuel element spacers, hot extrusion tooling.
Excellent strength for continuos service to 1800°F. Oxidation and carburization resistance to 1900°F. Galling resistant, with resistance to marine environments, acids and body fluids. Non-magnetic, even when severely cold reduced. Resistant to hydrochloric and nitric acid at certain concentrations and temperatures, and wet chlorine environments at room temperature.
APPLICATIONS: Gas turbine engine components, combustion chambers. High temperature ball bearing service, springs, and heart valves.
High strength and toughness from cryogenic temperatures to 1800°F (980°C), good oxidation resistance, exceptional fatigue strength, and good corrosion resistance.
APPLICATIONS: Chemical and pollution control equipment, ash pit seals, marine equipment, ducting, spray bars.
Better resistance to oxidizing and reducing environments; for severely corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. Good oxidation resistance to 2200°F. Good formability.
APPLICATIONS: Instrument probes, furnace muffles, electronic components, chemical and food processing equipment, heat treating equipment, steam generator tubing.
Silicon and Manganese provide a matrix to inhibit wear, galling, and fretting even in the annealed condition. Higher strength attainable through cold working the material and it is still fully austenitic after severe cold-working.
APPLICATIONS: Automotive valves; Fastener galling capable of frequent assembly and disassembly; Pins for roller prosthetics & chains to ensure a better fit of parts (closer tolerance, non-lubricated) and longer lasting; Marine shafts - better corrosion than types 304 and 316, with double the yield strength; Expansion joints (corrosion, galling resistance, low temperature toughness, high Charpy values at sub-zero temperatures.